Monday, March 28, 2011

Orissa GK Free resources General knowledge General Awareness

Orissa GK Free resources General knowledge General Awareness
Particulars Description
Area 1,55,707 sq. km
Population 36,804,660
Capital Bhubaneshwar
Principal Languages Oriya

Orissa: At a Glance

The name Orissa is derived from Sanskrit word "Odra Vishaya" or "Odra Desa". The ancient province of "Odra desa" or "Or-desa" was limited to the valley of the Mahanadi and to the lower course of the Subarnarekha River. It comprised the whole of the present districts of Cuttack and Sambalpur and a portion of Midnapore. It was bounded on the West by Gondwana, on the North by the wild hill states of Jashpur and Singhbhum, on the East by the sea and on the South by Ganjam.

The Orissa state, which was once a land of Kings and Kingdoms, now boasts of being rich source of natural resources. Its people, temple architecture, classical dance, religions, fairs and festivals, unique handlooms and handicrafts, green woodlands, rock caves, charming blue hills have always attracted historians, tourists and travellers from all over the world. Its rich history, revolutionary freedom movement, fascinatingly sculptured temples and monuments, tribal life characterized by dance, music, rituals, hunting, gaiety and wild ways have become important topics of research for great historians and scholars.

About Orissa

The name Orissa is derived from Sanskrit word 'Odra Vishaya' or 'Odra Desa'. The ancient province of 'Odra desa' or 'Or-desa' was limited to the valley of the Mahanadi and to the lower course of the Subarnarekha River. It comprised the whole of the present districts of Cuttack and Sambalpur and a portion of Midnapore. It was bounded on the West by Gondwana, on the North by the wild hill states of Jashpur and Singhbhum, on the East by the sea and on the South by Ganjam.

The Orissa state, which was once a land of Kings and Kingdoms, now boasts of being rich source of natural resources. Its people, temple architecture, classical dance, religions, fairs and festivals, unique handlooms and handicrafts, green woodlands, rock caves, charming blue hills have always attracted historians, tourists and travellers from all over the world. Its rich history, revolutionary freedom movement, fascinatingly sculptured temples and monuments, tribal life characterized by dance, music, rituals, hunting, gaiety and wild ways have become important topics of research for great historians and scholars.
Orissa History: In a Nutshell

The Territory of Orissa formed a part of the ancient Kalinga of Mahabharata fame. Ashoka, the Mauryan King of Magadh, invaded Kalinga in 261 BC and this event has gone down in history as the Great Kalinga war. Even with lot of resistance from the people of Kalinga and King Priyadarshan, Ashoka won the battle and noted down the descriptions of this Great War in his thirteenth Rock Edict. This bloodshed converted Ashoka's heart and he took up Buddhism. This became the last war of his life.

Kalinga came into prominence with Kharavela, a great conqueror and patron of Jainism, in the second half of the 1st century B.C. The other great rulers belonged to the Keshari dynasty and the Eastern Ganga dynasty. Flourishing maritime trade with South-East Asian countries i.e. Java, Bornio had brought in a golden era of affluence and opulence and the kingdom spanned from Ganga to Godavari. The Kalinga School of architecture flourished from the 7th to 13th century A.D. The Mukteswar Temple, the Sun Temple at Konark, the Lingaraj Temple and the Jagannath Temple of Puri are known all over the world for their architecture.

There were a number of heroes who were born in Kalinga before and during the British rule like Buxi Jagabandhu, Samudra Gupta and Harsha Siladitya. Budhism reached new heights with Prajna and Hieuen-Tsang, the famous Chinese pilgrim came to the University of Puspagiri and Buddhist complex at Ratnagiri-Lalitgiri-Udayagiri can now be seen speaking about the bygone era. Prophets like Adi Sankaracharya, Ramanujacharya and Sri Chaitanya made Puri the religious center. Jayadev composed his world famous lilting treatise 'Gita Govinda'. The Bhakti Cult came to Orissa in 16th century and Pancha Sakha i.e. Sri Jagannath Das, Sri Achyutananda Das, Sri Balaram Das, Ananta & Yasobanta were spiritual stalwarts and literary luminaries of the time. Kabi Samrat Upendra Bhanja , Kabi Surya Baladev Ratha, Radhanath Ray, Fakir Mohan Senapati, Pandit Gopabandhu Dash, Pandit Nilakantha Das, Godabaris Mishra, Kalandi Charan Panigrahi, Sachidananda Routray & many others have contributed substantially to the language & literature of Orissa. Utkal Gaurav Madhusudan Das, Maharaja Krushna Chandra Gajapati, Sri Ram Chandra Bhnjadeo, Sri Biswanath Das, Sri Nabakrushna Chowdhury, Dr. Harekrishna Mahatab, Sri Bijayananda Patnaik were the creators of modern Orissa.
Origin of the name of the State

The name of Orissa is derived from the Sanskrit Odra Vishaya or 'Odra Desa'. Greek writers like Pliny and Ptolemy described the Odra people as Oretes. The Greek Oretes is probably the Sanskrit Odra and the Mount Maleus has been identified with Malayagiri near Pala Lahara. The ancient province of 'Odra desa' or 'Or-desa' was limited to the valley of the Mahanadi and to the lower course of the Subarnarekha River. It comprised the whole of the present districts of Cuttack and Sambalpur and a portion of Midnapore. It was bounded on the West by Gondwana, on the North by the wild hill states of Jashpur and Singhbhum, on the East by the sea and on the South by Ganjam.
History of the State as an Administrative Unit and changes in its Component Parts

The Gajapati Kings of Orissa ruled over a kingdom in the 15th century AD but the Oriya-speaking central region began a downfall with Vijaynagar coming to prominence in 16th century and Ganjam was conquered. In the early 17th century, the districts north to the river Subarnarekha were annexed to the Bengal Subah of the Mughal Empire and the Marathas. The East India Company had no intention of unifying the Oriya-speaking territories which it had conquered piece by piece. The Oriyas were administered by five separate political authorities, i.e. Bengal and its Orissa Division, Chota Nagpur, the Central Provinces, Madras and the Garhjat Mahals of feudatory states of Orissa.

The formation of the linguistic province of Orissa in 1936 may be regarded as one of the landmarks in the history of the evolution of the Indian Union and after the 'Na Anka' famine of 1866. Raja Baikunthanath Dey of Baleshwar and Bichitrananda Das and the 'Ganjam Utkal Hitabadini Sabha' with the Raja of Kalinga, Venkates Beu greatly advocated the amalgamation of united Orissa. On the 28th November, 1874, there was a vast congregation of all the Rajas, Zamindars, met and finally in July 1877 'Utkal Sabha' was formed under the leadership of Utkal Gourab Madhusudan Das. Utkal Gourab Madhusudan Das, Biswanath Kar, Nanda Kishore Bal and Gopal Chandra Praharaj met the eminent British officers and submitted memorandums to unite Orissa. The Utkal Union Conference at Cuttack on the 30th December, 1903 under the leadership of Utkal Gourab Madhusudan Das played the most significant role for the amalgamation of the Oriya-speaking areas. Besides the Utkal Union Conference, the Oriya Peoples' Association, the Balasore National Conference, the Udit Club of Singhbhum, the Utkal Milan Samaja and the Utkal Hitaisini Samaja of Ganjam also played leading roles for the union of the Oriya-speaking areas. A counter movement called the Ganjam Defence League was organized by the Telugus in Ganjam to oppose the Oriya movement.

In 1917 the Montagu-Chelmsford Commission visited India on the subject of self-Government and its report recognized the need for an administrative union of the Oriya-speaking people and recommended for a sub-province for the Oriyas. On the 20th February, 1920 Satchidananda Sinha and A.B. Latthe, supported by Brajasundar Das, moved a resolution in the imperial Council for the amalgamation of the Oriya-speaking tracts. On the 25th November, 1921, Viswanath Kar and Sasibhusan Rath moved resolutions of separate Orissa province. C.L. Philip and A.C. Duff Commission made positive remarks about Orissa. The report of the Simon Commission, under the Chairmanship of the Sir John Simon, led to the summoning of the Round Table Conference. Krushna Chandra Gajapati Narayan Dev, the Maharaja of Paralakhemundi represented Orissa in the Conference. The Orissa Boundary Commission was appointed with D'Donnell as the Chairman. The Committee examined the claims of the Oriyas and finally recommended for inclusion of the plains in Orissa and the agency areas excluding Paralakhemundi, in the Ganjam district; and Khariar and Padmapur, excluding Phuljhar in the Central Provinces.

The 'white paper' was published on the 17th March, 1933, containing the draft proposals for the reforms in the Indian Constitution. It proposed to create two new provinces, viz., Sind and Orissa. The Maharaja of Paralakhemundi, authorized Utkal Union Conference Committee, by his powerful arguments, convinced the Parliamentary Committee for the transfer of Jaypur (Jeypore) agency and a portion of Paralakhemundi to Orissa. The union also recommended that a portion of the Jaypur estate which the O'Donnell Committee proposed to transfer to Orissa, the Paralakhemundi and Jalantar Maliahs and a small portion of the Paralakhemundi estate including Paralakhemundi town would also be added to the Orissa Province. But no step was taken for the transfer of Oriya-speaking areas from Bengal and Bihar. By this recommendation the total area was raised from 55,799 to 84,677 sq. km. (21,545 to 32,695 sq. miles). The Government of India Bill 1935 was passed by the Parliament and the new province of Orissa as an administrative unit came into being on the 1st April, 1936 with the following areas as per the Government of India (Constitution of Orissa ) Order,1936.
Areas from Madras / the Ganjam Agency Tracts

Non-agency portion of Ganjam district such as the Talukas of Ghumusur, Chatrapur, Aska, Sorada, Kodala and a portion of the Talukas of Ichhapur and Brahmapur as laid to the north and west of the line described in Part-II of the Schedule. So much of the Paralakhemundi estate as laid to the north and east of the said line. From Vizagapatnam district to the Jaypur estate and so much of Patangi Taluka as was not included in that estate.

Areas from Central Provinces / The Kharial Zamindari in Raipur district The Padmapur tract consisting of the 54 villages of the Chandrapur-Padmapur estate, seven villages, namely Kuakunda, Badima, Soda, Brahmapur, Palosoda, Jagni and Thakurpali were included.

During the pre-independence days, Orissa has suffered a lot and it was not possible to put together all the Oriya-speaking areas under a single administration. There were only six districts, viz., Cuttack, Puri, Baleshwar, Sambalpur, Ganjam and Koraput. The old district of Angul was split up into two statutory districts, viz. Anugul and the Khondmals under the Angul Laws Regulations, 1936 and the Khondamals Laws Regulations, 1936 respectively. But for administrative purposes Angul was tagged to Cuttack district and Khondamals to Ganjam district. The Collectors of Cuttack and Ganjam became respectively the ex-officio Deputy Commissioners of those two areas. The rest of the province constituted 26 princely states, governed by the Rajas and Maharajas who had the last word of law within the jurisdiction of their respective princely states. They were loosely knit and administered under Political Agent of the British Government who was mostly satisfied after the collection of a predetermined part of the total revenue collection known as tribute or Nazarana from the rulers of those states. The process continued till the country got independence in 1947.


The state of Orissa has become a centre of learning in the eastern India after it became a separate state on 1st April 1936. After Independence a lot of reforms have been made in the education system of Orissa to make it appreciated. Because of the reforms the standard of education in Orissa is qualitative. Subsequent Governments have taken a lot of initiatives to make the standard of education more attractive. The education system of Orissa has given base to a lot of Engineering and professional institutes. The students of various faculties of Orissa are earning reputation globally because of a sound infrastructure of education in Orissa. In recent years students from different part of India are coming to Orissa for higher education. It can be said that a revolution in the sphere of education has been started in Orissa after 90s. Orissa now a day is providing best infrastructure for general education, technical education, professional education and vocational education. So many institutes of national and international reputation are eagerly choosing Orissa as their destinations because education in this soil has a bright and prosperous future.

The education system in Orissa is very much well designed.

1. Department of Higher Education controls the following institutes:
* Universities
* General Colleges of Intermediate and Graduation
* Technical Institutes
* Professional Institutes
* Autonomous Colleges
* Deemed Universities
* Council for Higher Secondary Education (CHSE)
2. Department of Mass Education controls and administers the following organs:
* Board of Secondary Education(High Schools, Secondary schools)
* Middle English schools
* Upper primary schools
* Lower primary schools

Education system in Orissa can be summarized as follows:

1. LP. Schools
2. U.P Schools
3. M.E Schools
4. High schools
5. Intermediate level
6. Graduation level
7. Post Graduation level

Universities in Orissa: (As on 2005)

1. Utkal University, Vanivihar, Bhubaneswar
2. Berhampur university, Bhanja Vihar,Berhampur
3. Sambalpur University, Jyoti vihar, Sambalpur
4. Fakir Mohan University, Vyasa Vihar, Balasore
5. North Orissa University, Takatpur, Baripada
6. Utkal University of Culture, Bhubaneswar
7. Shree Jagannath Sanskrit University, Shree Vihar, puri
8. Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology (OUAT) BBSR
9. Biju Pattanaik University of Technology(BPUT)Rourkela
10. Ravenshaw University, Cuttack

Deemed Universities in Orissa: (As on 2005)

1. Kalinga Institute of Engineering and Technology (KIIT) BBSR
2. National Institute of technology, (NIT)Rourkela
3. Sikhsa O Anusandhan University (SOA) Bhubaneswar

Medical Education: (As on 2005)

* No. of Govt. Medical Colleges (SCB Medical colleges, Cuttack, MKCG Medical college, Berhampur, VSS Medical college, Burla): 3
* No. of Private medical colleges - Hi-tech Medical College
* No. of Govt. Dental college: 1
* No. of Pharmacy colleges: 1 (Govt), 13(pvt)
* No. of Ayurvedic colleges: 3 (Govt), 2(pvt)
* No. of Homeopathic colleges: 4 (Govt), 2 (pvt)

Science and technology institutes: (As on 2005)

* No of ITIs: 133 (24 Govt/109 pvt)
* Students: 22,504
* No. of engineering colleges: 36(5 Govt/31 pvt)
* Student capacity: 10,385
* No of polytechnic and Engineering schools: 26 (13 Govt/13 Pvt)
* Student capacity: 5,415
* MCA Institutes: 47(11 Govt/36 Pvt)
* Students' capacity: 2,667

Informations regarding other educational institutions in Orissa: (As on 2005)

* Colleges: 1679
* Higher Secondary: 1112
* Secondary schools: 6811
* Number of students: 12, 88,000
* Middle schools (UP schools):11,510
* Formal primary schools: 42,824lakh
* Govt. Sanskrit tools: 10
* Aided Sanskrit tools under non-planned scheme: 151
* Aided Sanskrit tools under planned scheme: 74
* Total No. of Madrasas in State: 167
* No of Govt. Madrasa: 1
* Grant -in -aid Madrasas: 78
* Un aided recognized Madrasas: 88

Other vital statistics on education Orissa

* Total Literacy Rate (2001 census): 64%
* Literacy Rate male (2001 census): 75.95%
* Literacy Rate Female (2001 census): 50.97%
* Literacy Rate S.C(2001 census): 36.8%
* Literacy Rate S.T(2001 census): 22.3%
* No. of enrollment of children (class i to viii): 7,018,304
* Access to alternative schooling- 754 (Primary Schools) and Upper primary schools-4097-under Sarva Shikshya Yojana.
* Residential Hostels under "Kasturaba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya Scheme": 49
* Computer aided education in: 600 schools
* No. of teachers engaged under SSA: 29341
* No. of Teachers engaged under DPEP: 3321
* Total No. of girls of classes viii of all communities under SSA (2006-2007): 2,17,214
* Total No. of boys of classes viii of ST/SC (2006-2007): 80,983
* Total unemployed: 10.04 lakh person's years
* Educated unemployed: 6.18 lakh
* Number of employment exchanges /bureau : 80

Art & Craft Colleges

* Govt. Arts and craft college, Khalikot(Ganjam)
* Bibhuti Kanungo Art & Craft College, Bhubaneswar

Music & Dance Colleges

* Utkal Music & Dance College, Bhubaneswar
* Berhampur Govt. Ayurvedic College, Berhampur
* Gopalbandhu Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Puri: offers Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine & Surgery degree courses
* Government Ayurveda college, Balangir: offers Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine & Surgery degree courses
* Nrusingh Nath Govt. Ayurvedic College, Paikmal, Sambalpur

Agriculture colleges

* College of Agriculture, Bhubaneswar: One of the best Agricultural institution in India, imparts up to master degree programme in Agriculture, under the Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar
* College of Agriculture, Chipilima: offers B.Sc (Ag.) courses under the Orissa
* University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar

Some Ayurvedic Colleges

* Berhampur Govt. Ayuvedic colleges, Berhampur
* Gopalbandhu Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Puri: offers Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine & Surgery degree courses
* Government Ayurveda College, Balamgir: offers Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine & Surgery degree courses

Govt. Engineering Colleges

* College of Engineering and technology, Bhubaneswar: One of the known Engineering colleges in Orissa
* College of Engineering & poly technique, Sarang, Angul
* College of Textile Engineering, choudwar: affiliated to Utkal University, provides four year course in Textile Engineering
* Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Talcher: established in 1982
* Orissa School Mining Engineering, Keonjhar
* National institute of technology, (NIT)Rourkela
* University college of Engineering, Burla. Sambalpur

Some Private Engineering colleges

* Ajaya Binaya Institute of Technology (ABIT) Cuttack
* Barapada school of Engineering and Technology, Bhadrak
* KIIT, Bhubaneswar
* Orissa engineering college (OEC) Bhubaneswar
* NIST, Berhampur
* ITER, Bhubaneswar
* C.VRaman Engineering College, Bhubaneswar
* Krupajal Engineering College, Bhubaneswar
* DRIEMS, Bhubaneswar
* Gandhi institute of Engineering & Technology, Gunpur

Some of Management Institute

* Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar (XIMB)
* Asian School of Business Management, Bhubaneswar (ASBM)
* International School of Business Management, Bhubaneswar (ISBM)
* Kalinga School of Management (KIIT), Bhubaneswar
* Indian institute of Tourism and Travel Management, Bhubaneswar (IITTM)
* Madhusudan Institute of cooperative Management, Bhubaneswar
* Rourkela Institute of Management Studies. (RIMS)Rourkela

Govt. (MCA) Institutes

* CET, (OUAT), Bhubaneswar
* Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Sarang, Dhenkanal
* University College of Engineering (UCE)Burla, Sambalpur
* National Institute of Technology (NIT)Rourkela
* Utkal University, Vanivihar, Bhubaneswar
* Sambalpur University, Jyotivihar, Sambalpur
* Berhampur University, Bhanjavihar, Berhampur
* Ravenshaw University, Cuttack
* Gangadhar Meher College (Auto.) Sambalpur
* Khalikote College, Berhampur

Some of the Law Colleges

* M.S Law College, Cuttack
* University Law college,vanivihar, Bhubaneswar
* Dhenkanal Law College, Dhenkanal
* G.M Law College, Puri
* Capital Law College, Bhubaneswar
* Kalinga Law School (KIIT) Bhubaneswar

Agriculture & Irrigation

Orissa is primarily an agrarian economy having nearly 30% contribution to the Net State Domestic product (NSDP) with 73 percent of the work force engaged in this sector. The cropped area is about 87.46 lakh hectares out of which 18.79 lakh hectares are irrigated. Climate and soil play a vital role in Orissa's agriculture economy. The total cultivable land exploited for cropping is about 40% of the total geographical area and the exploitation is comparatively more in the coastal districts of Orissa i.e. Balasore, Bhadrak, Cuttack, Ganjam, Jajpur, Jagatasinghpur, Kendrapara, Khurda, Nayagarh, Puri etc.

Facts and Figures Related to Agriculture in Orissa

  1. At the time of independence food grain production of Orissa was 2393 MTs.
  2. 1995-1996 Orissa produced 7923 MTs of food grains.
  3. Per hectare production of rice today is 1.4 MTs as against 1.8 MTs for the country as a whole.
  4. The yield per hectare has been 1080 kg in comparison to the national average of 1620 kg.
  5. In 1998 the cropping area utilized for food grain production was 89.4 % of the total cultivable land.
  6. Extent of rain-fed cultivable land: 62%
  7. Fertilizer consumption: 290.56%

Covered by Area of Total Gross Crops

Crops Area Covered
1. Paddy 77.7%
2. Pulses 10.9%
3. Oil seeds 4.9%
4. Fibre crop 1.3%
5. Other cash crops 2.1%
6. Food crops 289.66 thousand .ha
7. Vegetables 621.98 thousand .ha
8. Total production 7604.36 MT
9. Oil seeds (2002-2003) 1.15 lakh MT
10. Rice (2002-2003) 32.44 lakh MT
11. Total cereal (2002-2003) 33.50 lakh MT
12. Pulses 2.05lakh MT
13. Total area of Degraded land 61.21 lakh ha
14. Watershed project in operation 1860 nos
15. No of KVKs ( Krishi Vigyana Kendra) in OUAT 11
16. No of Agro Climatic Zones 10
17. Classification of land 25.6% (Low )
33.6 %( Medium)
40.8 %( Upper)

Land under Horticulture

Plantation Area Covered
1. Mango plantation: (2006-2007) 14,045 hact
2. Cashew plantation: (2006-2007) 4703 hact
3. Banana cultivation: (2006-2007) 1340 hact
4. Land under commercial floriculture 1865 hact
5. Land under cultivation of spices 520 hact
6. Cultivation of organic ginger and turmeric 100 hact

Types of Crops

The weather of Orissa favours a lot of crops for cultivation, among these crops rice, pulses, oil seeds, jute, roselle, sugarcane, coconut and turmeric are important crops. There are also cash crops like tea, cotton and rubber. The sate contributes one- tenth of the rice production in India. Apart from irrigation, floods, droughts, low yield per hectare and division and fragmentation of holidays are the most important agriculture problem of the state. Jute, gram sesame ragi, mustard, and maize are second- ranking crops in different districts. District- wise, Cuttack and Balasore rank second in jute production, Puri and Phulbani ranks high for gram and Mayurbhanja for maize product.

Food Grains

Food grains include cereals, millets and pulses. Among cereals the most important crop is rice. It is followed by ragi, maize, wheat, small millets and bajra. All these, except wheat are coarse cereals and belong to hardier crops which are mostly cultivated in the middle mountainous, rolling uplands and plateaus of Orissa. Where as rice is confined to the coastal plains, the river valleys and Hirakud command areas where alluvial soil is found. Coarse cereals are of major importance in Orissa both in production and productivity. Among the cereals, rice is the most dominant crop. It is concentrated in the areas of Cuttack Sambalpur, Puri, Ganjam, Balasore, Koraput, Keonjhar and Kalahandi. Rice cultivation is mostly confined to the alluvial coastal plains and river valleys below the 305 meter contour line because of ideal topographical and soil conditions.


The most important pulses grown in Orissa are gram, tuar, arhar. According to the classification the pulses of Orissa can be broadly divided in to Kharif and Rabi crops. The Mahanadi delta, the Rushikulya plains and the Hirakud and Badimula regions are favourable to the cultivation of pulses. Production of pulses is basically concentrated in districts like Cuttack, Puri, Kalahandi, Dhenkanal, Bolangir and Sambalpur.

Oil Seeds

Sesame, groundnut, mustard, castor and linseed are the principal oilseeds grown in Orissa. Oilseeds are categorized as Kharif and Rabi crops. Rabi oilseeds grown as a second crop after the cereals are harvested. Among the oilseeds, groundnut and castor are the hardier crops and are grown in marginal and sub- marginal lands.
Oilseed cultivation is concentrated in districts like Cuttack, Koraput, Kalahandi, Bolangir, Sambalpur, Dhenkanal and Ganjam. All these are located in a less hospitable terrain.
Coconut is highly cultivated in Orissa especially in the coastal districts. In the coastal district of Orissa like Cuttack, Puri, Jagatsinghpur, Jajpur, Kendrapada, Khurda, Nayagarh, Ganjam a large number of coconut trees are seen. Dhenkanal is the leading til producing district, Balasore leads in mustard and Cuttack in groundnut production.

Cash Crops

Among cash crops, fibre crops are especially important. Jute accounts for the maximum areas. Orissa is the fourth largest producer of jute after west Bengal, Bihar and Assam. Rice and jute, compete with each other as they require almost similar soil and climatic conditions. Cultivation of jute is primarily confined to the coastal plains of Cuttack, Balasore and Puri districts.
A considerable amount of Roselle is also cultivated in Orissa. It dominates in the districts of Cuttack, Ganjam, Bolangir and Koraput districts.
Sugarcane is the second most important cash crop in Orissa in area as well as production. It is grown in irrigated areas. Orissa stands eight in sugarcane production in India. A considerable amount of sugarcane is cultivated in Cuttack, Sambalpur, Bolangir, Kalahandi and Puri districts. Orissa also produces a small quantity of tobacco. In cash crop production, Cuttack district tops the list.

New Cash Crops

Among the new cash crops, the most important is cashew, which has been planted extensively in the low level latiritic plateaus at the foothills of the Eastern Ghats. The Cashew Plantation Board is responsible for the development of cashew cultivation in the state. Cashew is also being planted on the sand-dunes on the entire coastal belt. This is because of the suitable edaphic and climatic conditions in these areas. On the degraded and deforested hills of the Eastern Ghats, cashew is planted to check soil erosion. As a result, Orissa is earning a lot of foreign exchange by exporting cashew through Paradeep.

Rubber Plantations

To protect the degraded hill slopes of Eastern Ghats, rubber plantation have been taken up by Rubber Board. Bright prospect for the growth and development of natural Rubber exists in the northern Orissa Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar and Balasore due to favourable agro-climatic conditions. Orissa is a non traditional area for rubber plantations. Inland hill areas of Cuttack, Puri Ganjam and Dhenkanal districts have agro-climatic conditions suitable for rubber cultivation.


Cotton cultivation has been taken up extensively in Koraput, Bolangir and Kalahandi districts where suitable soil and climate conditions are found. Sea Island cotton can be grown in the Ballipal region of Balasore district.


It is concentrated in the areas of Eastern Ghats, Keonjhar mountainous region of Phulbani and Koraput.


It is concentrated in forest lands of Eastern Ghats, Koraput, Kalahandi, Malkangiri, Rayagada, G. Udayagiri and Balliguda areas of Kandhamal district.

Agricultural Zones on the Basis of Distribution of Crops

Agricultural Zones Area and Crop Distribution
1 The Baripada plain to the east of Budhabalanga. It is dominated by the sugarcane cultivation.
2 The south Balasore plain. It works as wonders for cereals.
3 The southern valley of the Baitarani. This area suits to sugarcane cultivation.
4 The Panposh plateau is dominated by pulses.
5,6 These zones cover the entire Mahanadi, Brahmani and southern portion of the Baitarani deltas. Throughout the zone, pulses are extensively cultivated. In the core sugarcane, jute oilseeds and other cereals are widely grown.
7 This region is solely dominated by oilseeds and is located on the eastern bank of the Brahmani River.
8,9 These zones are found in the middle and lower Brahmani valley. They are dominated by pulses. In the core of this region, cotton and sugarcane are extensively cultivated. Pulses, sugarcane and cotton are the principal crops.
10 This zone dominated by sugarcane is located in the Mahanadi valley and is confined to the Dhenkanal plains.
11 In the Nayagarh region oilseeds are the principal crop.
12 The upper Mahanadi valley is dominated by pulses.
13, 14 These zones located in the hilly terrain of the Udayagiri and Phulbani regions, almost overlap each other and are dominated by pulses and oilseeds.
15, 16 The Rushikulya Plain is the most important agricultural region in Orissa. It is dominated by pulses.
17, 18 The Vansadhara valley is a region dominated by sugarcane cultivation. Rayagada stands at the centre of this zone. Oilseeds are also widely cultivated to the east of the Vansadhara and thus a separate region is formed.
19 This small region in the upper reaches of the Nagabali is dominated by sugarcane cultivation.
20 This is a hilly region almost the same size as the former, but is principally a cereal area.
21, 22 The Nawrangpur plateau is mainly a region of pulses. Towards the southern part of this area, however, sugarcane dominates. So a separate region is worked out with pulses and sugarcane.
23, 24, 25, 26 The rolling uplands of Bolangir- Titlagarh- Patnagarh and Bhawanipatna are dominated by cereals.
27 The Sonepur plain is dominated by sugarcane cultivation.
28, 29, 30 The Sambalpur and Baragarh rolling uplands are dominated by pulses. In the northern part of this region sugarcane and in the south oilseeds dominate.
31 This region covers the rolling uplands of the basin and the Panposh rolling uplands of the Brahmani. Pulses are the principal crops here.


The state is blessed with abundant water resources & extensive network of rivers & streams. For effective utilization & management of water resources, river basin plans for all the eleven river basins of the state have been prepared and steps are being taken to set up River Basin Organization.
Irrigation is the main input of Agriculture without which Agriculture can not sustain its full growth. Irrigation Development not only correlates to Agriculture but also to other Socio-Economic aspects like industry, navigation, hydropower, pisiculture,water supply etc. With this objective, top priority has all along been given in Five-Year Plans for irrigation development. During pre-plan period, 1.83lakh hectare of irrigation potential was created. Attempts have been made to achieve irrigation development in planned manner by implementing different schemes such as AIBP, RIDE, BKVY, RR&R, Bharat Nirman & RLTAP etc. By the end of March-2006, 21.59lakh hectare of irrigation potential has been created using surface & ground water.
  1. Total private irrigation projects: 7465(2006 December)
  2. Irrigation potential created is about 1.45 lakh.hact with 61,799PLIPs.

Water Resources at a Glance

1. Net irrigation potential 2603.06 thou.ha (44.12% of total irrigable area)
2. Ground water resources 2101128
3. Utilized 14.79%
4. Major/ medium flow irrigation 122071thou.ha
5. Lift irrigation (minor) 347.39thou. ha
6. Flow irrigation (Minor) 454.49 thou.ha
7. Others 570.47 thou.ha

Initiatives by Govt. of Orissa

Biju Krushka Vikash Yojana (BKVY)

The scheme was launched by the State Government in the year 2001 with an objective to revive derelict projects and construction of new minor & irrigation projects through people's participation. As per the scheme, the beneficiaries will contribute 10% of the capital cost of the project in schedule area & 20% of the capital cost in non- schedule areas. After completion of the project, the operation & maintenance will be entirely controlled by the beneficiaries and are exempted from payment of water tax to Government.

Pani Panchayat

Adopting reform measures in irrigation sectors, participatory irrigation management (Pani Panchayat) programme has been taken up in mission mode approach and extended to all command area under major, medium and minor (Flow & lift) irrigation sector. Legal status has been provided to Pani Panchayat by enacting Pani Panchayat Act, 2002 & Pani Panchayat Rule, 2003.

New Initiatives

For better utilization of water resources, multi-sectoral development approach (flood control, drainage, irrigation) in river basin has planned. Two project proposals namely Mahanadi Basin Development Plan (MBDP) for Mahanadi Basin and Orissa Integrated Irrigated Agriculture & Water Management Project (OIWMP) for Baitarani, Budhabalanga and Subernarekha basins have been prepared & submitted to MOW for clearance.
To provide irrigation facilities, at least to 35% of the cultivable land in every block in nest five years, master plan in under process.

Irrigitation Status

Orissa share of irrigation land in 1995-96 was 23%. The ratio was 21% in 1990-91.
Irrigation Area
1. Canals 7,65,086 hectares
2. Tanks 81,413 hectares
3. Tube wells 63,084 hectares
4. Other means 1,60,142 hectares


Communication in the era of Globalization is a significant aspect through which many complicated activities are solved within a fraction of second. Communication network in recent years is developing with a proper pace in the land of Orissa. Even the remote areas of Orissa have been connected through telecommunication, postal network, mobile coverage, etc. The communication infrastructure which is a basic necessity for rapid industrialization has been given utmost importance in the land of Orissa.

* Telecommunication
* Postal Network


Considerable improvement has taken place in the telecom coverage as well as in quality of services in recent years and the state Govt. is providing all the support for its development. Almost 95% of the state (with the exception of Cuttack and Sambalpur) is covered by electronic exchange.

Public call offices having STD and ISD facilities are plentiful in Orissa and the state has 120 STD Codes linking various regions on the telecom map. ISD and fax facilities provide automatic dialled access to national and international subscribers. Orissa along with the rest of India has recently received access to internet for global connectivity and for a host of services like E-mail, database access, etc.

Private sector investment in value added telecom services like paging, cellular services, mobile radio trunking, tele-banking, etc making its entry in to the state in a line with recent central Govt. policy changes.
Facts and Figures about Telecommunication in Orissa

1. Orissa has 680 telephone stations of which 613 have STD facilities
2. STD coverage- 30 districts networking 58 subdivisions, 147 tehsils, 314 block head quarters.
3. Trunk call efficiency - 83% against targeted 80%
4. Total no. of telephone connections - 11,26,192(2004-2005)
5. Land line connections - 7,67,953
6. Mobile connections - 2,93,085
7. WLL connections - 65,154
8. Local PTS - 8,698
9. STD service stations - 22402
10. Highway PTS - 633
11. Total no of STD lines in the state - 4,14,109(2004-2005)
12. Telephone exchanges - 1136(2004-2005)
13. Number of villages covered - 40,753(2004-2005)
14. Total area covered under telecommunication - 86.72%

Postal Network

Orissa is part of India's wide network of 1, 50,000 post offices. The government run postal department has a vast network of 7,947 post offices (1991-92 census), providing services to both important towns and remote rural areas with the rest of the country.

The postal department is also planning to introduce new value added service like hybrid mail for faster delivery through dedicated computer and satellite links. Domestic and international courier services also operate in the state.

Geography of Orissa

The state of Orissa lies within the latitudes 17.780 & 22.730 and longitudes 81.37 E and 87.53E.Geographically the state is bounded by the states of West Bengal on the North East, Jharkhand, on the North, Chhatisgarh on the west, and the Andhra Pradesh on the South, the Bay of Bengal on the east. The state has costal line of about 450kms the state extends over an area of 155,707 sq. kms. which accounts about 4.87% of total area of India. According to 2001 census, the state has total population of 36,706,920 out of which 18,612,340 are male and 18,094,580 are female.


There are four meteorological seasons are felt in Orissa namely:
  1. Winter season (January-February)
  2. Pre-monsoon season (March-May)
  3. South west monsoon season (June-September)
  4. Post monsoon or north east monsoon season (October-December)
Besides descriptions made above particularly three seasons are mainly experienced in Orissa: Summer, Monsoon, Winter. However in Orissa locally there are six seasons: Grishma, Barsha, Sarata, Hemanta, Sisira, Basanta which cover the whole year.

Morphology of Orissa

Morphologically the state of Orissa can be divided into five parts:
  1. The coastal plains
  2. The middle mountainous country
  3. The rolling upland
  4. River valleys
  5. Subdued plateaus

The coastal plains

The coastal plains of Orissa stretch from Subarnarekha in the North to Rusikulya in the South. They are narrow in the north, widest in the middle, narrowest in the lake Chilika coast and broad in the south. The coastal plains are the gift of six major rivers, which bring silt from their catchments, has reclaimed this area from the depths of the Bay of Bengal. The rivers from north to south are the Subarnarekha, the Budhabalanga, the Baitarani, the Brahamani, the Mahanadi and the Rushikulya. The coastal plains can be termed as a land of "Six deltas". These deltas include the Subernarekha, the Budha Balanga, the middle coastal plain, the combine deltas of the Baitarani, the Brahamani, the Mahanadi and the south coastal plains (The Rusikulya plains).

The mountainous region

The mountainous region of Orissa covers about ¾ of the area of the state. The region is a part of Indian peninsula. Here deep and broad valleys are cut by the Baitarani, the Brahamani, the Mohanadi, the Rusikulya, the Bansadhara and the Nagavali rivers. They are fertile, well drained and thickly populated. Morphologically this region can be divided in to the following units.
  1. The Simulia and meghasana mountains
  2. The Baitarani and the Brahamani interfluous
  3. The water shed between the Brahmani and the Mahanadi
  4. The water shed of Rusikulya and Vansadhara. The elevation ranges from 6102-1068 meters

The rolling uplands

The rolling uplands are lower in elevation than the plateaus. They vary from 153m-305m. They are the products of continued river action, are rich in soil nutrients, and are situated in the koelsankh basin of the upper Brahamani in the IB, the Suktel and the tell of the middle Mohanadi and the Sabari basins. The rolling uplands may be grouped as follows: the Rajgangpur uplands, the Jharsuguda uplands, the Bhawani pattna uplands, the Bargarh uplands, the Balangir–Titlagarh uplands-the Patnagarh uplands, the Malkanigir uplands and the Rairangapur uplands.

The river valleys

The river valleys are net product of the action of rivers. They are fertile and times present and undulating topography. The major river valleys of Orissa are associated with the Brahamani, the Mahanadi and the Vansadhara rivers.

The subdued plateaus

The subdued plateaus (305-601m) revel all the peculiarities of peninsular tablelands. They are almost flat and the monotony of geography is interrupted by the river valleys. These features are commonly met with in the upper Baitarani and the Sabari basins of the Keonjhar and Koraput Districts, respectively. In these uplands sheet erosion is most common while gullying is confined to the river valleys. These plateaus can be divided in to the Panposh–Keonjhar–Pallahara plateaus and the Nawrangpur- Jeypore plateaus.

Natural Resource of Orissa


There are four groups of rivers which flow through Orissa into the Bay of Bengal. They are:
  • Rivers that have a source outside the state (the Subarnarekha, the Brahmani and the Mahanadi)
  • Rivers having a source inside the state (the Budhabalanga, the Baitarani, the salandi, and the Rusikulya)
  • Rivers having a source inside the Orissa flow through other states (the Bahudu the Vansadhara, and the Nagavali)
  • Rivers having a source inside Orissa, but tributary to rivers which flow through other states (the Machkund, the sileru, the Kolab and the Indravati)
River Mahanadi
It is the major river of Orissa and sixth largest river in India. It originates from the Amarkantak hills of the Bastar plateau in Raipur district of Chhatisgarh. It is about 857 kms. Long (494 kms in Orissa) and its catchment area spreads over 141,600 (65,580 sq.kms) in Orissa. The river carries average about 92,600 million m. of water.
The Brahmani
It is the second largest river in Orissa. It originates two major rivers like the Sankh and the Koel from the Chhotangpur Plateau of Bihar and both join at Veda Vyasa near Rourkela of Sundergarh district of Orissa forming the major River Brahmani. It flows through the Eastern Ghats in Sundargarh, Keonjhar, Dhenkanal, Cuttack and Jajpur districts in to the coastal plains and enters into the Bay of Bengal along with a combined mouth with the Mahanadi known as the Dhamra. The Brahmani is 799 kms. Long (541kms In Orissa) and its catchment area spreads over 39,033 sq. kms in Orissa).
The Baitarani
It originates from the Gonasika hills of the keonjhar district. It is 365 kms. long and its catchment area spreads over 12,790 sq. kms. It enters into the Bay of Bengal after joining of the Brahmani at Dhamra mouth near chandabali Subarnrekha.
It originates from Chhotnagpur plateau of Bihar. It is 433 kms. (70 kms. in Orissa) and has a catchment area of 19,500 kms. (3,200 kms. in Orissa) with a mean annual flow of 7,900 million.
The Budhabalanga
It originates from the eastern sloops of the Similipala massif. It is about 175 kms. long having a total catchment area of 4840 sq. kms with an annual flow of 2177 million m. Its major tributaries are the Sone, the Gangadhar, the Catra etc.
The Rushikulya
It originates from Rushikulya hills of the Eastern Ghats in Phulbani district. It is 165 kms. long with 8900 sq.kms of catchment areas. Its tributaries are the Baghua the Dhanei Badanadi etc. It has no delta at its mouth.
The Bahuda
It originates from the Ramgiri hills of the Eastern Ghats in Gajapati district and joins the Bay of Bengal in Andhra Pradesh. Its length 73 kms. having a catchment area of 1250 kms.
The Bansadhara
It originates from the flanks of the Durgakangar hills (Lingaraj hills) of the Eastern Ghats in Kalahandi districts. It is 230 kms. out of which only 150 kms. in Orissa. It enters in to Bay of Bengal at Kalingapatnam in Andhra Pradesh. It has a catchment area of 1150 sq. kms.
The Nagabali
It originates from the Bijipur hills of the Eastern Ghats near Lnjigarh. It is 210 kms. long out of which 100kms is in Orissa. It has a total catchment area of about 9410sq.kms.
The Salandi
It originates from the Meghasan hills of the Similipala massif in Keonjhar district. It is 144kms long with catchment areas of 1793 sq.kms.
The Indrabati
It originates from the Eastern Ghats in Kalahandi district. It is 530 kms. long with a catchment area of 4170 sq. kms. as a tributary it flows into the Godabari River.
The Kolab
It originates from the Sinkarn hills of the Eastern Ghats in Koraput district. It has catchment areas of 20400 sq. kms.


Most of the rivers, either at the point of origin or over the mountainous bed, have waterfalls. The Barehipani and Joranda (Similipal) in Myurbhanja district Sanaghagara and Badaghagara in Keonjhar district. Padhanpuri in Deogarh district khandadhar (Banei) in Sundargarh district Phurliharan, Khandabaladhar, and Rabandhar in kalahandi district Kentamari and putudi in Boudh and Phulbani district DumDuma in Malkangiri district and Bogra in Koraput district are some of the major waterfalls of Orissa.


The Chillika Lake is blackish water lagon located in the southern part of the Orissa coastal plane. It salinity decleans to a minimum during the monsoon. But in winter due to the overflow of the tidal water through the narrow opening from the Bay of Bengal, it is maximum.
Ansupa is a sweet water lake located in Banki of Cuttack district. It is 3 kms. in length and 1.5 kms. in breadth. Sara in another sweet water lake located near puri. It is 5 kms. in length and 3 kms. in breadth. Kanjia is another sweet water lake with about 134 acres of area located in Nandankanan of Cuttack district near Bhubaneswar.
Name of the springs Rivers /tributary etc. Location /District
1. Bada Ghagra Ghagaras, a tributary to the Baitarani Kendujhar district
2. San Ghagra San Ghagaras a tributary to Baitarani Ditto
3. Kapilas A tributary to the Brahmani Dhenkanal District
4. Chandikhol A tributary to Mahanadi Cuttack District
5. Mahavinayak - -
6. Barunei Tributary to the Daya Near Khurda of khurda district
7. Narayani Draining to lake Chilika Puri district
8. Nirmal Jhar Draining to lake Chilika Near Khalikot in Ganjam District
9. Pradhanpat A tributary to the Brahamani Near Deogarh of Deogarh district
10. Phurligharan A tributary to the Indravati Near Bhawanipatna of Kalahandi district
11. Khandadhar A tributary to the Brahamani Near Bonei of Sundargarh district
12. Nurshingh Nath A tributary to the Tel Balangir district
13. Harishankar Jira river, a tributary to Tel Balangir district
14. Gosinga Jhar Kuaria Nala, a tributary to the Mahanadi Near Kantilo of puri district
15. Koiliharan A tributary to the Mahanadi Near Jharsuguda of Jharsuguda district.
16. Jharbada Mankada river a tributary to the Brahamani Near Malaygiri in Dhenkanal district.

Hot Springs

There are only three hot springs which drain out mineral water, containing a very high percentage of sulphur. One of them is at Deulijhara near Athamallik on the flood plains of the Mahanadi. The second one is at Atri near Khurda. The third is located on the eastern slopes of the Eastern Ghats at Taptapani of Ganjam district.

Tidal Rivers

The tidal sections of the rivers and their distributaries are confined to the lower reaches of the rivers in the Orissa coastal plain. They vary as per the shape of the mouth, depth of the channel, and extension of the sand bars in the river mouths. The tidal channels vary from a maximum of 90 km. in Brahmani to a minimum of 5km in case of Baghuni from their respective mouths. The mahanadi is tidal for about 35km whereas the Devi, a distributary of the Mahanadi, is tidal 45km. following table gives a picture of the tidal channels in Orissa.

Scenic Wild Life

One of the greatest benefits of Orissa's vast expanses of unspoilt natural landscape has been its ability to offer a protected yet natural habitat to the state's incredible wildlife.


A short distance from the capital city, Bhubaneswar. The Nandanakanan zoo lies in the splendid environs of the Chandaka forest, along the rippling waters of the Kanjia lake. It also contains a botanical garden and part of it has been declared as sanctuary.
Famous for its white tiger population, Nandanakanan or the Garden of Gods has become a hot favourite, with visitors getting an excellent opportunity to enjoy seeing these regal animals in their natural glory-in an environment conductive to their growth. Over 67 kinds of mammals, 18 varieties of reptiles and 81 species of birds coexist in this deeply forested boundaries.
The zoo enjoys an excellent reputation internationally, for successfully breeding back panthers, Gharial crocodiles and white tigers in captivity.

White Tiger Breeding

One of the rarest creatures in the world the regal white tiger received a new lease of life with the important research and concentrated efforts initiated to try and breed them in the natural environs of Nandankanan.
In 1980 on a day full of excitement and jubilation the first litter of white tigers were born to Deepak and Ganga, two normal tawny tigers.
Subsequent litters of white tigers have been distributed to zoos both at home and aboard. Currently Nandanakanan is home to over 34 white tigers.
Endangered species such as the Asiatic lion, 3 Indian crocodiles, Shanghai lion-tailed macaque, Nilgiri langur, India Panogolin, mouse, deer and countless birds, reptiles and fish have been breeding successfully at Nandankanan.
Some of the other attractions of Nandankanan are the 34 aquaria which are home to large variety of fresh water fishes. The reptile parks cave-like entrance is guarded by a lifesize dinosaur, inside, numerous species of crocodiles, lizard's turtles and snakes share the park with natural ease.
The rope way connecting the zoo with the botanical garden over the lake, the boating facilities and the toy train for children have added new features.


Apart from Nandankana Similipala is a national park of national reputation, which belongs to Mayurbhanj district of Orissa. In this sanctuary the visitors have liberty to have glanced the movements of wild animals from a safety distance, arranged by the authority. During winter a number of visitors visit this park. This park is well connected with road ways. The guest houses of OTDC make smooth arrangements for staying of visitors.

Gharial Breeding

For the first time ever, a captive breeding centre was created for Gharial crocodiles. This important task was also facilitated by the gift of an adult male from the Frankfurt zoo.


The white tiger Safari established in 1991 offers visitors the heady excitement of viewing the rare white tigers from specially designed protected buses.
The lion safari offers an adventurous zing to the trip to Nadankana.

The Chandaka Elephant Reserve

Only one of its kind. It is perfect for eco-tourism activities. Apart from the fabulous Elephants, Cheetah, Bear, Peafowl, Sambar and numerous other animals roam around doing their business unhampered.


Bhitarakanika wild life sanctuary is in north eastern coastal plain of newly found Kendrapada district. It covers on the area of about 650sq.kms (anonymous, 1986) of which approximately 380 sq.kms is under forest cover (map No.2). However, the core area of Bhitarakanika is 141.44 sq. which includes 115.5 sq.kms of mangrove forest. It is bounded by the river Dhamra (Confluence of Brahamni and Baitarani), Brahmani and about 35 kms long stretch of sea shore. It is indeed a treat to visit Bhitarakanika either through Chandbali or through Rajnagar/ Gupti, from where one has to take a motor launch ride to visit this many splendoured estuary.
The music of streams flowing from mud flats after the tide, as one navigates through the creeks, particularly in summer months is indeed breath taking. Unlike many protected areas one can visit this park round the year, except for short periods, when it is closed to visitors for census operation or for nesting etc. The fauna includes estuarine crocodile, fishing cat, Cheetah, Sambar, water monitor lizard, python, king cobra, dolphin and many species of resident and migratory birds, like white bellied sea eagle, Brhaminy and Pariah kites, vulture, cormorant , darter, king fishers, open billed stork, white ibis, painted stork, whistling teals, Brahamini duck, pochards, bar headed geese, herons, and egrets.


It is close to Bhitarkanika. The list shall remain incomplete if mention is not made of Gahirmatha rookery of olive Ridley sea turtles which have made this the largest nesting ground of the species in the world where up to 6, 00,000 female turtle nest. It is fascinating experience to cruise through the estuarine rivers flanked by dense mangrove vegetation and stay in a forest Rest Houses at Dangmal, Ekaula, Habelikhati or Gupti.

Satakosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary

Satakosia Gorge wildlife in heart of Orissa has the potential of becoming one of the finest protected areas in the country but so far not much support has been given to this. This sanctuary alongwith Baisipalli spread on either side of Mahanadi boasts of Tiger, Leopard, Elephant gaur, Sambar, Cheetal, Barking deer, Malabar giant squirrel, Gharial, Mugger, Python, King cobra, Pea fowl, Red jungle fowl, Hornbills, hill myna migratory birds in the rivers etc. A gharial research center and interpretation centre are located close to the forest Rest House at Tikarapada. A cruise through the Satakosia Gorge is an unforgettable experience.

Large Forest Coverage

The total forest in the state in 1981 was 59, constituting about 38% of the total geographical area. In 1989, it stood at about 30%; but according to 2001 census, the coverage of forest area is 37% of the total land area.
Based on the relief, rainfall and vegetation types, the forest of Orissa are divided in to the following types:
  1. Northern Tropical Semi-evergreen forests: These occur in the lower hills and valleys above 600m elevation in the forest divisions of Mayurbhanj, Dhenkanal, Athagarh, Puri, Nayagarh Parlakhemundi, Koraput nd Kalahandi. While the top storey trees are deciduous and remain leafless for a short lime, the second storey is evergreen. The important tree species are: Arjun, Mango, Makar kendu (Diospyros embryopteris), champak, Rai, manda and Nageswa.
  2. Tropical moist deciduous forests also known as Monsoon forests: These occur in the lower elevations in Mayurabhanj and Keonjhar districts and the districts bordering of Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh. The top canopy is formed by sal (Shorea robust) and its allies Asan, piasal, Kurum, Kangra and Dhawra and daba bamboo (Bamboosa arundinacea)
  3. Tropical Dry Deciduous forests: They occur in the drier central and western areas in parts of Balangir, Kalahandi, Sambalpur, Khariar, Deogarh and Gobindpur divisions. Teak instead of sal, and salia bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) instead of Daba bamboo predominate in these forests.
  4. Tidal Mangrove forests: These are limited in extent scattered and confined to the seacoast, especially in Bhitarkanika (Balasore) and the mahanadi delta. The characteristic tree species are karika (Bruquiera), Sundari (Heritiera) , Bani (Avicennia) , Rai (Rhizophora),Guan (Expcaria, etc. As Hental (Phoenix Paludosa) grows here abundantly in clusters, the mangrove forests are locally called Mental van or Hental forests.
Forest are a major constituent of the natural resources in the form of timber, firewood and a large number of profitable forest products like Sabai grass, lac, resin, catechu, tassar silk, honey, natural dyes, etc. The valuable timber species are teak seasum or Rose wood, piasal, kassi, kurum, Arjun, Gambhari, Giringa, and such other varieties of polishable wood that are used for furniture, and Sal, Asam, Dhau, Bandhan, Kangra, etc. which are hard and utilized in various construction works. Kendu (Diospyros Xylocarpus) leaves which are used for wrapping bidi constitute a profitable source of revenue as they are largely in demand all over the country. Bamboo is of extensive utility not only in the life of the common man but also essential raw material for paper industry. It is used in the paper mills of the state and supplied outside, especially to west Bengal. Sabai Grass is also used for making paper pulp, but mostly for rope making. Sericulture, undertaken in the forest areas, provides a good source of income to the people. Certain parts of the forest, for example the Gandhamardan hill in Balangir, abound in medicinal plants and herbs. Nux vomica which grows widely in most forests and rauwolfia serpentira,which grows in the jungles of the south, are common examples.

Abundant Mineral Resources

The state is endowed with vast mineral deposits like Coal, iron-ore, Manganese-ore, Bauxite, Chromite, Dolomite, Limestone, graphite, etc. Besides that other important mineral resources are also available abundantly in Orissa.
The main exported minerals of the state are Chromite, Coal, Dolomite, Iron-ore, Manganese and Bauxite. The value of mineral production of Orissa 2000-2001 (provisional) was 2 ,776.15 crore rupees and 5.23% share to all India value. The total production of minerals and ores in the state during 2000 -2001 registering an increase of 8.79% in quantity and 4.84% in value.

Vast Coast Line

India has a long coastline of 6200kms. The state of Orissa apart from other states of India is endowed with a long coast line of 480kms along the Bay of Bengal, interspersed with numerous ports like Paradeep, Gopalpur, Dhamra, (Chandbali), Bahabalapur, etc. The coast line of Orissa covers the distance of Chandaneswar to Gopalpur.

Beautiful Beaches

All the sea beaches of Orissa are rated best in the country among all other beaches. All the beaches are spotlessly clean, absolutely quiet, with hardly any crowd. The beaches give a lot of opportunity to the visitors for swimming, bathing, strolling etc. All the sea beaches of Orissa are attractive round the year. The beautiful beaches of Orissa include Puri, Chandrabhaga near Konark, Balighai and Ramachandi (8 kms. from puri), Gopalpur near (Berhampur of Ganjam District) Chandipur (Bhadrak district) Chandaneswara (88 kms. from Balasore) etc.

History of Orissa

The name of Orissa is derived from Sanskrit Odra Vishaya or "Odra Desa. The Ancient Odra desa or Ordesa was limited to the valley of Mahanadi and to the lower course of Subarnarekha River. It comprised the whole of the present districts of Cuttack and Sambalpur and a portion of Midnapur. Bounded on the west by Gondwana, on the north by the wild hill states of Jaspur and Singhbhum, on the east by the sea and on the South by Ganjam, Orissa has a legendary history.
Historically it was a part of the ancient Kalinga of Mahabharata fame. It was a home of many powerful kings and kingdoms. It has rich history of art, architecture, culture and religion that has drawn attention from all over the world.

Stages of Historical Developments in Orissa

261 BC to 49 BC

261 BC: Orissa's past focuses with the war of Kalinga in which the people of Kalinga had a bloodshed war with Ashoka, the powerful Mouryan emperor from Magadha. The bloody carnage left Ashoka with such a bitter taste in his mouth that he turned his back on violence forever and embraced the Budhism. Budhism spreads under his patronage and becomes one of the major religions.
177 BC: Coronation of king Kharavela.
232 BC: Ashoka dies. The Mauryan Empire lasts up to 185 BC.
1st Century BC: Kalinga drifts out of the Mauryan rules under the first Chedi King Mahameghavahan in the early part of the 1st Century BC.
49 BC: The third Chedi king Kharavela comes to power, and conducts extensive military campaigns. The greatness of his power is felt from the eastern coast to western coast of India and from Mathura in the North to the Pandya kingdom in the south. Jainism flourishes under him.

1st Century AD to 736 AD

2nd Century AD: Early in the 2nd Century AD Kalinga is occupied by the Satabahana King Goutamiputra Satakarni from the west (Nasik), and continues to remain under the Satabahanas probably upto the rule of Yajansri Satakarni (AD 174-202).
3rd century AD: After the death of Yajansri Satakami (202 AD), some minor dynasties like the Kusanas of North India, the foreign Indo- Scythian Murundas, and thereafter the Nagas are believed to have ruled in the land until the time of Samudragupta's south India campaign.
350 AD: Samudragupta of Magadha sets out on his campaign of the south and conquers parts of Kalinga.
350-498 AD: Soon after the invasion of Samudragupta to new ruling power called Marathas raises its hand (from modern Parlakhemundi) and continues to rule over Kalinga till 498 AD.
500 AD: The reign of first group of the eastern Gangas begins.
6-7 Century BC: A new dynasty called Sailodbhava raises its hand in the coastal region of Orissa extending from Mahanadi in the North to the Mahedragiri in the South. It is during the region of the Saillodhavas that Kalingas overseas trade flourishes largely with the rulers bunching their colonial adventure in the Suvarnadweepa i.e., modern Myanmar.
621 AD
  1. Harshavardhana of Thaneswar (Modern Haryana) invades Utkal and occupies till Chilika Lake. Budhism gets a renewal in 630 AD.
  2. Huen Tsang visited Orissa
647 AD: The last Hindu emperor of India Harshavardhana dies.
736 AD: Bhuama era begins with the region Unmattasimha alias Sivakardeva who occupies the Saillodhava Kingdom. The Bhuamas give patronage to Budhism. The dynasty is marked by a few illustrious women rulers like Tribhubana Mahadevi and Dandi Mahadevi.

Medieval I (931 AD to 1467 AD)

931 AD: The reign of Somavamsis begins. Somavamsi continue to raid till 1110 AD. Temple building activities reach a considerable degree of perfection during the reign of the Somavamsi with Bhubaneswar as the chief center. Somavamsi King Mahasivagupta Yayat II comes to the throne, and with him begins the most brilliant epoch in the history of Orissa. Yayat II unites Kalinga, Kangoda, Utkal and Koshala in the imperial tradition of Kharavela. He is believed to have constructed 38 temples for Lord Jagannath at Puri. He is also known to have laid the foundation of the famous Lingaraj Temple at Bhubaneswar.
1038 AD: The eastern Ganga which was lying low since the end of 5th century AD came into prominence again with the rise of Vajrahasta V who defeated Somavamsi ruler Kama Deva and establishes the Ganga Supremacy over Kalinga.
1050 AD: The construction of Lingaraj Temple at Bhubaneswar is finished by Lalatendu Keshari of the Soma Dynasty.
1078 AD: Chodaganga Dev of Ganga Dynasty comes to the throne.
1112 AD: Chodaganga Dev invades Utkal and brings it under his rule. A great champion of Vaishnavism, he is believed to have built the monument of Jagannath Temple at Puri. It was during the rule of Chodaganga Dev that the famous medieval saint Ramanujacharya is known to have visited Orissa
1115 AD: Construction of Lord Jagannath Temple started.
1147 AD: King Chodoganga Dev dies. About 15 kings rule the Ganga Empire after him.
1211 AD: Anangabhima Dev III ascends to the throne. He is believed to have finished the construction work of Lord Jagannath Temple at Puri. Anangabhima Dev establishes a new city called Avinaba Bidanasi Katak (Modern Cuttack) at the bifurcation of the river Kathajodi and Mahanadi.
1234 AD-1245 AD: Langula Narasingh Dev built Sun Temple at Konark.
1238 AD: Anangabhima Dev dies in 1238 AD. His son Narshimha Dev comes to throne. He is reputed to have built the Temple for the Sun God at Konark.
1244 AD: King Narasimha Dev invades Bengal.
1361 AD: Sultan Firuz Shah Tugluq invades the Ganga Kingdom and occupies Avinaba Bidanasi Katak.
1435 AD -1467 AD
  1. Kapilendra Dev founded Orissa Empire.
  2. Oriya Mahabharat was written during this period.

Medieval II (1567 to 1764)

1567: Suleiman Karrani, the sultan of Bengal invades Orissa.
1568: Ramachandra Bhanja, the feudatory of Saranga Garh rises in rebellion and proclaims himself as the king. Mukunda Dev dies in a battle with Ramachandra Bhanj, Soon thereafter Ramachandra Bhanja also meets his defeat and died in the hands Bayazid, the son of Suleiman Karrani. He succeeded in conquering Orissa thereafter Afghan rule in Orissa began.
1590-1595: Orissa becomes an arena for the battles between the Mughals and the Afghans when the Afghans refuse to acknowledge the supremacy of the Mughals ruling over Delhi. The operation continues from 1590 to 1595 resulting to the complete defeat of Afghans.
1592 - 1751: Mughals rule in Orissa begins with the arrival of Raja Manasingh, Akbar's Rajput General, who destroyed the Afghans resistant. On the instruction of the Akbar, Orissa is divided into five sarkars: Jaleswar (including Medinapur), Bhadrak , Cuttack, Chika Khol, and Raj Mahendry Dandpat. Orissa is thus acquired for Mughal Empire and is governed as a part of the Bengal Subah for sometime. It is during the Mughal rule that the merchants carry on their brisk overseas trade & commerce and attract the attention of European traders.
1607: During the rule of Akbar's son & successor, Jahangir, Orissa constituted into a separate province, with Cuttack as capital and is placed under a subhedar.
1670: Kavi Samrat Upendra Bhanj is believed to have been born around 1670.
1728: The Nizam of Hyderabad occupies the whole of Ganjam & Chikakol (Srikakulam) & declares them as the North Sarkar.
1751 - 1803: Maratha Administration of Orissa begins with Raghuji Bhonsla-I as the new chief of the territory. Marathas continue to rule till 1803, the year in which Orissa passes to the hands of the Maratha administration. Marathas rulers however patronized religion and religious institutions, thus making Orissa centre of attraction. Oriya literature also makes a rapid progress during the period.
1633: East India Company set up its trade centre at Hariharpur and Balasore.
1757 - 1764: After the battle of Plassey in 1757 & Buxar in 1764, the British Empire looks for acquiring more Indian territories. Orissa being the neighboring state of Bengal naturally comes to be included in their planning.

Modern Up To 1948

1803: British army under Col. Harcourt begins its march from Ganjam in the South, and occupies the Mugalbandi districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, and thereby completed conquering Orissa.
1807: The first book to be printed in Oriya is "New Testament" published by the Serampore Baptist Mission Press.
1817: Under the leadership of Bakshi Jagabandhu Biddyadhar, the paikas of Khurda rises up against the British rule what is known as the famous Paikas Revolt of 1817. It is primarily an agrarian revolt against the wrong policies of land settlement and revenue administration adopted by the British.
1822: Missionaries arrive in Orissa.
1837: Missionaries established Cuttack Mission Press.
1839: Oriya is adopted as the language of the court replacing Persian language.
1843: Fakir Mohan Senapati is born.
1848: Kulabrudha Madhusudan Das is born.
1849: Missionaries bring out the first Oriya Magazine -"JNANARUNA"
1853: Bhaktakabi Madhusudan Rao is born.
  1. Appearance of saint poet Bhima Bhoi.
  2. Surendra Sai of Sambalpur, Chaki Khuntia of Puri, and Arjun Singh of Podahat join hands with sepoys that is known as the "Sepoy Mutiny"
1862: Poet Gangadhar Meher is born.
1866: A failure of rain in 1865 resulted in the loss of usual crops and brought about a catastrophic famine in 1865-66 which laid to the death of about one million people in Orissa. Gross negligence, indifferent administration, lack of communication and inadequate attention caused massive deaths in Orissa.. Cuttack printing press, the second in the state is established by the initiative of the people of the province. The first news paper "Utkal Dipika" is brought out by the Cuttack printing company. This tragic famine is known as "Naonkandurvikshya".
1866-1900: It was during this late 19th century that a new consciousness began to take shape. The growth of modern education gave birth to middle class intelligentsia. The publication of nationalistic periodicals and journals came into existence. Nationalistic literary activities of writers like Fakir Mohan Senapati and Radhanath Ray, gets prominence. Rise of numerous socio religious and cultural societies for creating consciousness. Formation of the Indian National Congress took shape of a political movement to unite all the Oriya-speaking areas under one administration.
1882 AD: Utkal Sabha under the secretary Gouri Sankar Ray formed.
1895 AD: Meeting held at Cuttack under the leadership of Utkal Gourava Madhusudan Das and the resolution passed for unification of Oriya speaking tracks.
1898 AD: Madhusudana Das elected to Bengal Legislative Assembly.
1909 AD: Satyabadi Bana Vidyalaya established at Sakhigopala (Puri) district.
1912 AD: Sitting of Jatiya Sameelan was held at Balasore for discussion about creation of a separate state.
1918 AD: Satyabadi press established at Sakhigopala.
1927 AD: Utkalamani Gopabandhu Das passed away.
1930 AD: Salt Satyagraha (Labana Satygraha) at Inchudi, Balasore.
1936 AD: 1ST April Orissa became separate state.
1938 AD: Baji Rout died in police firing.
1939 AD
  1. (5TH August) Subash Chandra Bose visited Cuttack.
  2. Jaya Prakash Narayan visited Cuttack.
  3. Major general Bezel Gate was attacked and killed at Ranapur of Puri district.
1941 AD: Raghu Dibakar hanged in connection with Bezel Gate murder.
1943 AD
  1. Oriya song transmitted for the first time from Calcutta radio station.
  2. Utkal University started functioning.
1946 AD
  1. Foundation stone of Hirakuda Dam laid by Sir.Hawthrone Lewis, Governor of Orissa.
  2. Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI) established at Cuttack.
1947 AD
  1. Sri Biju Pattanaik made a daring flight to Indonesia to bring the hostage Indonesian leaders.
  2. Merger of princely state with Orissa.

History After 1948

Capital from Cuttack shifted to Bhubaneswar.
1950 AD: With the coming of independence, the princely states in and around Orissa surrender their sovereignty to the Government of India. By the states merger (Governors provinces) order, the princely states of Orissa are completely merged with the Orissa on 19th August 1949, and the new Orissa becomes nearly twice its size by the addition of more people to its population.
1952 AD
  1. To institute Kalinga prize Sri Biju Pattanaik donated an amount of one thousand pound to UNESCO.
  2. In Govt. transaction both Oriya and English language were introduced.
1953: Rourkela Steel Plant (RSP) was founded.
1950-56: The second (post-independence) ministry under the leadership of Nabakrushna Choudhury formed.
1956-59: The third (post-independence) ministry headed by Dr.H.K.Mahatab assumes office.
  1. Orissa Board of Secondary Education (BSE) is formed.
  2. Establishment of Burla Engineering College at Sambalpur.
  1. Orissa Sahitya Academy is formed.
  2. Completion of Hirakud Dam.
  3. To introduce Oriya in official language, official language act was passed in Orissa Assembly.
  4. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Prime Minister of India inaugurated Hirakuda Dam.
  1. Establishment of Rourkela Steel Plant (RSP).
  2. Mihir Sen crossed English Channel.
1959: Medical College at Burla, named as VSS Medical College started.
1959-61: The fourth (post-independence) ministry formed under the leadership of Dr.H.K.Mahatab.
1960: The Orissa Land Reforms Act of 1960 introduced.
  1. Inauguration of Orissa State Assembly Building.
  2. Regional Engineering College (REC) started at Rourkela.
  3. Orissa State Electricity Board (OSEB) is set up.
  1. Congress forms the fifth (post-independence) ministry under the great leadership of Shri Biju Pattnaik. Shri Pattnaik initiates several industrial projects for rapid industrialization of Orissa. Most important and ambitious of the projects are Paradeep Port and the Express Highway connecting the port with the mining areas.
  2. Bali Mela and Talcher Projects, MIG Factory at Sunabeda.
  3. Orissa Industrial Development Corporation (IDCO) and Orissa Small Scale Industries Corporation are set up.
1963: Utkal University building inaugurated.
  1. Congress forms the sixth (post-independence) ministry under the leadership of Shri Biren Mitra of Congress.
  2. Nehru laid foundation stone of NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation) at Talcher, in 1964.
  1. Congress forms the seventh (post-independence) ministry under the leadership of Sadasiva Tripathy.
  2. Completion of Paradeep port (1966).
  1. Establishment of two new universities at Berhampur and Sambalpur.
  2. A new party called Jana Congress is formed under the leadership of Dr. Harekrushna Mahatab.
  3. Pt. Nilakantha Dash passed away.
1971-72: As the result of an indecisive verdict in the mid term poll held in the March, 1971, the Swatantra Party, the Jharkhand Party and the Utkal Congress party form a coalition Govt. Ninth (Post-independence) ministry formed under the leadership of Shri Biswanath Das.
  1. Maharaja Krushna Chandra Gajapati passed away.
  2. Acharya Harihara passed away.
1972-73: Mrs. Nandini Satpathy takes over as the chief of the tenth ministry formed after large scale defections from the ruling coalition.
1973: Imposition of president rule on 3rd March, 1973.
1974 -76: Mrs Nandini Satpathy forms eleventh ministry.
1977: Mr.Binayak Acharya is sworn in as the Chief Minister of the twelfth ministry. The ministry remains in office only for 123 days. In a mid term poll, the Janta Party laid by Shri Biju Pattnaik secures 110 seats out of 147 seats. Mr.Nilamani Routray is made the Chief Minister. The ministry remains in office till 1980.
1980: Shri Biju Pattnaik conferred the title of "Bhumiputra" by Indonesian Government.
  1. Sri Jagannath Sanskrit University is established at Puri.
  2. National Aluminium Company (NALCO) established at Angul.
1981-85: Congress party wins a resounding victory to form of the fourteenth ministry in the state. Mr. Janaki Ballav Pattnaik becomes the Chief Minister.
  1. Mrs. Indira Gandhi addressed last meeting of her life at Bhubaneswar.
  2. Television Transmission Centre was established at Cuttack.
  1. Congress party wins an impressive victory in the elections to the 9th Orissa Legislative Assembly.
  2. Mr. Janaki Ballab Pattnaik becomes the Chief of the fifteenth ministry.
  1. Dr. Harekrushna Mahatab passed away.
  2. Shri Sachidananda Routray, renowned poet of Orissa received "Gyanapitha" award.
  1. Shri Rabi Ray was elected as Speaker of Loksabha.
  2. Agni Ballistic Missile was test fired for first time at Chandipur on sea.
1989-90: Mr. Hemananda Biswal becomes the sixteenth Chief Minister after the resignation of Shri Janaki Ballav Pattnaik.
  1. Under the dynamic leadership of Shri Biju Pattnaik, the Janta Dal wins an astounding victory in the elections to the Tenth Orissa Legislative Assembly.
  2. Justice Ranganath Mishra sworn in as the Chief Justice of India.
1993: Number of districts of Orissa increased from 13 to 30.
1995: Indonesian Government awarded their highest national title "Bintan Jasuttam" to Shri Biju Pattnaik.


Orissa is one of the important states of India which is endowed with varieties of mineral resources. The mineral resources of Orissa have reputation for being qualitative for industries. The mineral resources of Orissa include Iron ore, Manganese, Coal, Bauxite, Dolomite, Tin, etc. Mineral resources have played an important role to make Orissa hot destinations for industries. Because of mineral resources big industries, like Rourkela Steel Plant, National Aluminum Company, National Thermal Power Corporation, have established their positions not only in India but also in world market. Besides those, reforms in infrastructure in recent years have created an atmosphere conducive for major industries of the world to look forward to Orissa as an epi-centre for industrial growth. In Eastern India, Orissa is really growing in real sense to become an industrial hub in the coming years.
Government of Orissa aims at creating and industry-enabling and investor friendly climate in the state with a view to accelerate industrial developments, employment opportunities and economic growth. IPR-2001 and Orissa Industries (facilitation) Act 2004 embodies the above objectives of Govt. Orissa has already emerged as a major investment destination for national as well as transborder national investors, especially in steel, aluminum, petrochemicals, power, IT and ITES, food processing industries, tourism and other such sectors.

Infrastructure Development

Government is in the process of formulating a robust public- private-partnership (PPP) policy to promote private investments in infrastructure development. Some successful efforts to initiate PPP projects include Paradeep Haridaspur Railway Link, Dhamra Port and Gopalpur Port etc. The state has already taken the initiative of promoting Special Economic Zones (SEZs) for attracting exports oriented industries and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI).

Types of Industries Existing in Orissa

With the passing of times journey of industrial growth has taken a momentum within the Geographical periphery of Orissa. On the basis of investment the industries of Orissa are classified into following categories:
  1. Large Scale Heavy Industries
  2. Large Scale Industries
  3. Small and Medium Industries
  4. Handicraft and Cottage Industries
  5. Khadi and Village Industries


For economic development of any state, industrialization plays a vital role. But for creating a viable atmosphere for industries and corporate houses a sound and smooth infrastructure becomes top priority for the government. Keeping that sentiment in view the government of Orissa since few years has consistently tried to provide a fine tuned industry and investment friendly infrastructure. In that direction the government is becoming successful which is seen through a lot of major changes and improvements occurred in the fields of infrastructure. The most important agenda of government of Orissa has become providing the state best connectivity through roads, rail, sea, and air.


Roads are considered the most important component of infrastructure, to which nations economy either directly or indirectly connected. Constructing high quality roads of international standard has come to reality in the soil of Orissa because of the potential will of the Government of Orissa. The State is connected to other neighboring states like west Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Chhatisgarh, through all weather high standard roads. Major roads of the state are covered by Pradhan Mantri Bharat Jodo Pari Yojana (PMBJP). The approaching roads to the main roads have qualitatively improved. In recent years the internal roads connecting villages, hamlets have become R.C.C roads. The roads connecting to Gram Panchayat Road and Taluka (Block) Road have also been constructed through R.C.C. In recent days attempts have been made for constructing roads through Public Private Partnership (PPP).

Facts And Figures About Roads Of Orissa

  1. Total road length (As on 31.03.03): 238034 kms.
  2. National Highway: 12nos (3193 kms.)
  3. State Highway: 5014 kms.
  4. State Express Highway: 30 kms.
  5. Major District Roads (MDR): 3288 kms.
  6. Other District Roads (ODR): 6138 kms.
  7. Classified Village Roads (CVR): 3338 kms.
  8. Village Roads: 25072 kms.
  9. Panchayat Samiti Roads: 20324 kms.
  10. G.P Roads: 139942 kms.
  11. Forest Roads: 7242 kms.
  12. Urban Roads: 18132 kms.
  13. Railway Route (as on 31.03.03): 2401 kms.
  14. Broad Gauge 2311 km: Coastline proposed 574 kms.
  15. Irrigation Roads: 6277 kms.
  16. GRIDCO Roads: 88 kms.
  17. Railway length per thousand 15.04 kms.
  18. Goods Vehicle (as on 31. 03.03): 84268
  19. Public, Private Buses: 4946
  20. Car, Jeep, Taxi: 66691
  21. Auto Rickshaws: 11310
  22. Scooters & Mopeds: 943178
  23. Others: 10667
  24. No. of Post Offices: 8159 (Rural 7556, Urban 603)


Orissa is well-connected with the national rail network. It has rail lines of 2287km, including 91km of narrow gauge. The Orissa railway network is a part of the East Coast Railway, which is the largest carrier of commercial load in both freight as well as passenger traffic in the country.
  1. Orissa is a link between Eastern and Western India through the railway network of South- Eastern and East-Coast Railways.
  2. With the commissioning of the Talcher-Sambalpur railway line, a vital link has been established between Coastal and Western Orissa.
  3. While construction of the Koraput-Rayagada line has been completed, work on the Daitari-Banspani (expected completion is by 2006) and Khurda Road- Bolangir railway links are in progress
  4. Development of Haridaspur - Paradeep and Angul-Duburi- Sukinda Road rail links, currently being planned, will connect the resource base to the industries.
The government of Orissa has signed a memorandum of understanding with Rail Vikas Nigam Limited for the Haridaspur-Paradeep link. The project cost is expected to be Rs.540crore and is expected to be complete by 2008. Out of the total of 942 acres, 770 acres have already been handed over to the railways. Rail Vikas Nigam Limited will also take up the Angul- Duburi- Sukinda Road link under PPP, estimated to cost around Rs.344 crore.


Orissa is endowed with a long coast line of 480 kms. along the Bay of Bengal interspersed with numerous ports like Dhamra (Chand Bali), Bahabalpur etc. Pradeep is the deepest port in India and is the main entry/ exit point for sea borne trade in Eastern India, catering particularly to Orissa, Bihar, Chhatisgarh and Uttar Pradesh. It is emerging as a primer port of the country. The cargo profile of the port includes iron ore, coal, other minerals, food grains, petroleum products etc. A Modern fishing harbour has recently been commissioned at Paradeep.
The port handles up to 12mtrs. draught and has a mechanized iron ore berth in addition to other cargo berths, 4 wharf cranes of 13.2mt capacity is 500 tone slip way and requisite cargo handling and storage facilities. The port has its own railway system and connected to East Coast Railways. It is also connected to NH5 A and State Highway 42.
The Gopalpur Port of Ganjam district is a fair weather sea port with a current handling capacity of 2000-2500 tone per day. The port is ear marked for conversion to an on weather deep water port with augmented and fully mechanized. Cargo handling capacity and additional services for which a MOU has bee signed and the project is slated to be fully operational soon.
Development of small ports and satellite ports will be the thrust area in the state. Some of the developmental possibilities have been identified as below:
Name of the Port Locations Districts
1. Gopalpur Ganjam
2. Bahuda Muhan (Sonepur) Ganjam
3. Palur Ganjam
4. Baliharchandi Puri
5. Astarang Puri
6. Nuanai Puri
7. Mangala Ghat Puri
8. Jatadhar Muhan Jagatsinghpur
9. Barunei Muhan Kendrapada
10. Dhamra Bhadrak
11. Chudamani Bhadrak
12. Inchuri Balasore
13. Chandipur Balasore
14. Bahabalpur Balasore
15. Subarnarekha mouth (Kirtania) Balasore

Inland Waterways

Historically the river-ways of the state have a long tradition of cargo traffic. In fact, the building materials for the famous temples at Puri and Konark had been transported by the inland waterways. The Brahmani and Mahandi rivers were used for coal barges in the past. A study has been commissioned to examine the commercial viability of reviving this traditional mode of inland transportation and this may throw up many possibilities in the future.

Social Infrastructure


The last two year have witnessed construction of large number of apartments by the private real estate builders in the major cities of Orissa i.e. Bhubaneswar, Cuttack, Berhampur, Rourkela, Angul, Sambalpur etc. Many luxurious bunglows and offices of renowned corporate houses have come up in Orissa.

Medical Facilities

Medical facilities have improved tremendously in recent years. The health system in the state is primarily run by state owned hospital. Apart from that, initiatives of private parties have helped for opening of modernized clinics, nursing homes, and diagnostic centers.
Reputed hospitals of India have started their operation and providing best medical support. Orissa has become a good medical service provider in the eastern region. There are three Government medical colleges and one private medical college in Orissa which provide best medical facilities. L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Ayush Hospital, Care Hospital, Hemalata Hospital, Panda Medical Centre for Cancer, Kalinga Hospital, Appolo Clinic, are some of the renowned names in the medical sector operating in Orissa.

Financial Infrastructure

  1. Commercial Banks (Government, Private, Foreign Bank)
    Government Banks
    SBI, UBI, UCO Bank,Canara Bank, Andhra Bank, Bank of Maharashtra,
    Punjab National Bank etc
    Private Banks
    ICICI Bank , HDFC , Axix Bank etc
  2. Financial Institutions (both Central and State)
    Central Financial Institutions
    State Financial Institutions
    Insurance Institutions
    LIC, GIC, (Government )
    Bajaj Alianz, Kotak Mahindra, Aviva Life Insurance, ICICI Prudential etc. (Private)

Source: IT Department, Government of Orissa